Silicon avalanche photodiodes refer to photosensitive elements used in laser communication. After a reverse bias is applied to the P-N junction of a photodiode made of silicon, the incident light will be absorbed by the P-N junction to form a photocurrent. The response wavelength of Si-APD covers 260-1100nm. APD has an internal gain mechanism. Compared with ordinary PIN tubes, it can provide tens to hundreds of times the signal under reverse bias, and has faster response speed and higher signal-to-noise ratio while maintaining low dark current.
Development Status and Forecast of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes (Si-APDs) Industry
During the "13th Five-Year Plan" period (2017-2021), the global silicon avalanche photodiode (Si-APDs) market size in 2017 was USD 66.4 million. Affected by the epidemic in the past two years, according to the latest research by QYR, the global silicon avalanche photodiode (Si-APDs) market size in 2021 will be US$77.66 million, of which the five-year compound growth rate from 2017 to 2021 will be 3.99%. During the "14th Five-Year Plan" period (2021-2025), it is estimated that the global scale will reach 94.17 million US dollars in 2025, and the compound growth rate during 2021-2025 will be 4.94%.
An avalanche photodiode is a semiconductor photodetector (photodiode) that operates at relatively high reverse voltages (typically tens or even hundreds of volts), sometimes only slightly below threshold. In this range, the carriers (electrons and holes) excited by the absorption of photons are accelerated by the strong internal electric field, and then secondary carriers are generated, which often happens in photomultiplier tubes. The avalanche process occurs only at a distance of a few microns, and the photocurrent can be amplified many times. Therefore, avalanche photodiodes can be used as very sensitive detectors, requiring less electronic signal amplification and therefore less electronic noise. However, the avalanche process itself has quantum noise and amplifier noise, which negates the aforementioned advantages. Additive noise can be quantitatively described by the additive noise figure F, a factor that characterizes the increase in electronic noise power compared to an ideal photodetector.
Silicon-based avalanche diodes are sensitive in the wavelength range of 450-1000 nm (sometimes up to 1100 nm), with the highest responsivity in the range of 600-800 nm, i.e. slightly smaller wavelengths than Si p-i-n diodes in this wavelength range. The multiplication factor (also known as gain) of Si APDs varies between 50 and 1000, depending on the device design and the applied reverse voltage.
The research on the localization and mass production of Si-APD devices in China started relatively late. At present, domestic Si-APD devices still lag behind foreign giants. The main lagging area is the lack of applications leading to incomplete serialization of products.
With the rapid development of applications such as smart driving, smart home, and high-sensitivity detection, low-light and single-photon detection will experience explosive growth. Si-APD device technology mainly has two development directions, one is the miniaturization and integration of devices. On the other hand, the performance of Si-APD devices is further improved, such as the improvement of detection responsivity in ultraviolet, infrared and near-infrared bands. With the continuous development of Si-APD technology and the maturity of Si-APD mass production technology, Si-APD devices with low price and superior performance can be applied to more and more fields.
According to the survey, the global silicon avalanche photodiodes (Si-APDs) market size is approximately USD 77.66 million in 2021 and is expected to reach USD 116.99 million in 2028, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.45 percent for the period 2022-2028.
In 2021, China will account for 5.06% of the global market share. It is estimated that the compound growth rate of the Chinese market will be 9.75% in the next 6 years, and the scale will reach 7.34 million US dollars in 2028. The important market position of the Asia-Pacific region will become more prominent in the next few years.
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